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SMITHSONIAN

———MISCELLANKOUS COLLECTIONS.

“EVERY MAN IS A VALUABLE MEMBER OF SOCTETY WHO BY HIS OBSERVATIONS, RESEARCHES,

AND EXPERIMENTS PROCURES KNOWLEDGE FOR MEN.’’—SMITHSON.

WASHINGTON: PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 1873.

CONTENTS.

Advertisement .

ARTICLE I. Tue Moutvsxs or Western Norra AMERICA. By Pump P. Carpenter, B.A., Ph.D. Embracing the Second Report made to the British Association on this subject, with other papers ; reprinted by per- mission, with a General Index. December, 1872. Pp. 446.

ARTICLE Il. ARRANGEMENT OF THE Famitres or Motiusks. Pre- pared for the Smithsonian Institution by THEODORE Git, M.D., Ph.D. February, 1871. Pp. 65.

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PAGE

S Wills

ADVERTISEMENT.

THE present series, entitled ‘‘Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col- lections,” is intended to embrace all the publications issued directly by the Smithsonian Institution in octavo form ; those in quarto con- stituting the “Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge.” The quarto series includes memoirs embracing the records of extended original investigations and researches resulting in what are be- lieved to be new truths, and constituting positive additions to the sum of human knowledge. The octavo series is designed to con- tain reports on the present state of our knowledge of particular branches of science : instructions for collecting and digesting facts and materials for research: lists and synopses of species of the organic and inorganic world: museum catalogues: reports of ex- plorations : aids to bibliographical investigations, etc., generally prepared at the express request of the Institution, and at its expense.

The position of a work in one or the other of the two series will sometimes depend upon whether the required illustrations can be presented more conveniently in the quarto or the octavo form.

In the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, as well as in the present series, each article is separately paged and indexed, and the actual date of its publication is that given on its special title- page, and not that of the volume in which it is placed. In many cases, works have been published, and largely distributed, years before their combination into volumes.

While due care is taken on the part of the Smithsonian Insti- tution to insure a proper standard of excellence in its publications, it will be readily understood that it cannot hold itself responsible for the facts and conclusions of the authors, as it is impossible in most cases to verify their statements.

JOSEPH HENRY, Secretary S. I.

( vii )

SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS. ——_—__—_— 9§3 ——__

THE

MOLLUSKS

Or

WESTERN NORTH AMERICA.

BY PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B.A., Pu.D.

EMBRACING THE SECOND REPORT MADE TO THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION ON THIS SUBJECT, WITH OTHER PAPERS; REPRINTED BY PERMISSION, WITH A GENERAL INDEX.

WASHINGTON: SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION

DECEMBER, 1872.

ADVERTISEMENT.

THE opportunity afforded by Mr. Carpenter’s visit in 1859-60 to the United States, was embraced to secure his services in naming and arranging the shells collected by the United States Exploring Expedition and other parties on the Pacific Coast of North America. Mr. Carpenter, having previoysly presented to the British Association a report on the state of knowledge in regard to the mollusks of the west coast of North America, embodied the additional information which he obtained, chiefly through the Smithsonian Institution, in a second report to the same Association ; and now, in order to facilitate the study of this class of animals by the American student, this work is re- published with supplementary papers, from stereotype copies of the original pages.

JOSEPH HENRY, Secretary S. I.

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, Wasuineton, November, 1872.

PHILADELPHIA: COLLINS, PRINTER,

eee So eds os

PAGE Advertisement ° . ‘< 5 . . . ii Tatcoduction rw oie: S : ss ; % a List OF PAPERS REPRINTED IN THIS VOLUME . S . ee ce Oe NOT REPRINTED IN THIS VOLUME . - ° . xi ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF SPECIES ° . : 3 Sa tele

INTRODUCTION.

Arter the publication of my first ‘Report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the West Coast of North America,” undertaken at the request of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, and printed in their Report for 1856, I visited America in order to arrange the first duplicate series of the great Reigen Collection of Mazatlan Shells which I had presented to the New York State Museum at Albany. It was one of the special objects of my visit to ex- amine the types of previously described species in the United States, that I might compare them with those known in England. Having visited Washington to examine the types of the United States Exploring Expedition (Wilkes’), I was requested to spend the winter of 1859-60 in unpacking and arranging the shells belonging to the National Museum under its charge; and after my return to England I received from time to time the various collections sent to the Institution from the West Coast as they arrived; all of these were duly compared with the types in the Cumingian and other British collections.

Being thus in a position to correct a large number of unavoid- able errors in my first Report, and to add a great deal of fresh information from American sources (chiefly obtained through the Smithsonian Institution), I was requested by the British Asso- ciation to embody the material in a “Supplementary Report” on the same subject as the first. Knowing how difficult it is for American students to obtain access to serial publications, I ob- tained permission, in behalf of the Institution, to stereotype this second report, and the papers connected with it, which appeared in the ‘Proceedings of the Zoological Society,” the Annals and Magazine of Natural History,” and the “Journal de Conchy- liologie.”

C~)

vi INTRODUCTION.

The present volume consists, therefore, of a reprint from these stereotype plates, with the original paging at the top, and the Smithsonian paging at the bottom; and of a general index of species.

The index was prepared (at the expense of the Smithsonian Institution) by Mr. E. Taylor, Student at McGill College. It includes not only the present volume but all my previous English publications on the subject, of which the principal are the First British Association Report and the British Museum Mazatlan Catalogue. All references to these works not reprinted have the page-number prefixed by a Roman Capital (O to X), by which they can be at once distinguished from the simple num- bers which refer to the foot-page in this volume. Students who want an index to the First Report will fix the eye on the initial O; to the Mazatlan Catalogue on P.

In an accompanying list will be found an enumeration of all my papers published in European journals relative to American conchology, and for the most part reprinted in the present col- lection. In this, however, is not included any of the contribu- tions to American serials, as the Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, the Proceedings of the Cali- fornia Academy, or the American Journal of Conchology.

My principal object in the preparation of these works has been to make out and compare the writings of previous naturalists, so that it might be possible for succeeding students to begin where I left off, without being obliged to waste so large an amount of time as I have been compelled to do in analyzing the (often inac- curate) work of their predecessors.

As the work of previous writers, whether satisfactory or other- wise, is duly tabulated in my Reports, so that others may judge of its value as well as J, it is not fair (as is often done) to quote from these Reports as on my authority. I was simply the his- torian, not the original writer. In the First Report I was a novice in the scientific world, and rarely ventured on criticisms ; in the second, I allowed myself with more confidence to state my own conclusions, because I found that others had not enjoyed the remarkable facilities of comparing types which fell to my lot, and which (in many instances) cannot be renewed. Since that time, Nuttall, Gould, Rich, Judge Cooper, and especially Hugh Cuming, have been called to another world; their collections

INTRODUCTION. Vil

have changed hands, and fresh causes of error have crept in. The present condition of the Cumingian Collection has been faithfully described by Dr. Gray in the Proceedings of the Zoological So- ciety; and those who will take the trouble to compare his review of the Calyptrxide, after the destruction of original labels conse- quent on Reeve’s Monograph, with that which I gave in the Mazatlan Catalogue, while these labels were still fixed to the shells, will appreciate the advantages which I formerly enjoyed.

Readers who may discover any uncorrected errors in this volume, or in any of my other works, are urgently requested to apprise me of them (Box 1934 P. O., Montreal, C. E.), in order that they may be corrected in the Report of the Mollusca which Prof. Whitney has requested me to prepare for the Cali- fornia Geological Survey.

PHILIP P. CARPENTER. MontrEAL, July 17, 1872.

ty

LIST OF PAPERS

ON

AMERICAN MOLLUSCA

PUBLISHED IN EUROPEAN WORKS BY

Pp. P. CARPENTER.

REPRINTED.

ses

Supplementary Report on the Present State of our Knowledge with Regard to the Mollusca of the West Coast of North America. Page 1.’

From the Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, for 1863, pp. 517—686. Published in August, 1864.

Extra copies, with title-page, dated 1864.

B:

Review of Prof. C. B. Adams’ ‘‘Catalogue of the Shells of Pan- ama,” from the Type Specimens. Page 173. From the Proceedings of the Zovdlogical Society of London, June 23, 1863, pp. 339—369. C. Diagnoses of New Forms of Mollusks collected at Cape St. Lucas, Lower California. By Mr. J. Xantus. Page 207.

From the Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Third Series, Vol. XIII, pp. 311—315, April, 1864. Ibid. (Nos. 15—36) pp. 474—479, June, 1864. Ibid. Vol. XIV. (Nos. 37—52), pp. 45—

49, July, 1864.

D.

Contributions towards a Monograph of the Pandoride. Page 223. From the Proceedings of the Zodlogical Society of London, pp. 596— 603, November 22, 1864.

1 The references are to the bottom paging. (ix )

x LIST OF PAPERS.

E.

Diagnoses of New Forms of Mollusca from the Vancouver Dis- trict. Page 233.

From the Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Third Series, Vol. XIV. (Nos. 5—37), pp. 423—429, December, 1864. Ibid. Vol. XV. (Nos. 37—56), pp. 28—32, January, 1865.

if

Diagnoses of New Forms of Mollusca from the Vancouver Dis- trict. Page 247.

From the Proceedings of the Zoélogical Society of London, pp. 201— 204, February 14, 1865.

G

Diagnoses of New Species and a New Genus of Mollusks, from the Reigen Mazatlan Collection; with an Account of Addi- tional Specimens presented to the British Museum. Page 253.

From the Proceedings of the Zodlogical Society of London, pp. 268—273, March 14, 1865. :

EH,

Descriptions of New Species and Varieties of Chitonide and Acmeide, from the Panama Collection of the late Prof. C. B. Adams. Page 263.

From the Proceedings of the Zodlogical Society of London, pp. 274—277, March 14, 1865

i.

Diagnoses of New Species of Mollusks, from the West Tropical Region of North America, principally collected by the Rev. J. Rowell, of San Francisco. Page 269

From the Proceedings of the Zodlogical Society of London, pp. 278—282, March 14, 1865.

K:

Diagnoses of New Forms of Mollusca, from the West coast of North America, first collected by Col. E. Jewett. . Page 277. From the Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Third Series, Vol. XV., pp. 177—182 (Nos. 373—386), March, 1865. Ibid. pp. 394—399 (Mangelia variegata to end), May, 1865.

LIST OF PAPERS. xi

ie

Diagnoses of New Forms of Mollusea, collected by Col. E. Jewett, on the West Tropical shores of North America. Page 291.

From the Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Third Series Vol. XV., pp. 399—400, May, 1865.

M.

Diagnoses des Mollusques nouveaux provenant de Californie et faisant partie du Musée de |’Institution Smithsonienne. Page 297.

From the Journal de Conchyliologie, Vol. XII. (Third Series, Vol. V.) pp. 129—149, April, 1865.

IN.

On the Pleistocene Fossils collected by Col. E. Jewett, at Santa Barbara, California; with Descriptions of New Species. Page 319.

From the Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Third Series, Vol. XVII., pp. 274—278, April, 1866.

NOT REPRINTED,

O.

Report ou the Present State of our Knowledge with Regard to the Mollusca of the West Coast of North America.

From the Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, for 1856, pp. 159—368. Published in 1857. Extra copies with title-page, list of plates with references to figures (4 pages), dated 1857. Not reprinted, but referred to under ‘‘O” in the general index.

P.

Catalogue of the Reigen Collection of Mazatlan Mollusca in the British Museum.

Each sheet dated: July, 1855—June, 1857. The Bryozoa, by G. Busk, Esq. Printed by order of the Trustees at the Oberlin Press, Warrington. 552 pp. First Edition, with Preface as arranged by Dr. J. E. Gray, on sale at the British Museum, price 8s. Second Edition, with Author’s Preface, accompanying dupli- cate collections of the shells, published simultaneously.

xii LIST OF PAPERS.

NOT REPRINTED (continued).

Q. Descriptions of (supposed) New Species and Varieties of Shells, from the Californian and West Mexican Coasts, principally in

the Collection of H. Cuming, Esq. Proceedings Zodlogical Society, Part xxiii, 1855, pp. 228—235.

3 Notes on the Species of Mipponyx inhabiting the American Coasts, with Descriptions of New Species. Ditto, Part xxiv, 1856, pp. 3—5.

S.

Description of New Species of Shells collected by Mr. T. Bridges in the Bay of Panama and its vicinity, in the Collec- tion of Hugh Cuming, Esq.

Ditto, pp. 159—166. -.

Description of New Species and Varieties of Calyptreide, Tro- chide and Pyramidellide, principally in the Collection of Hugh Cuming, Esq. [From American and other seas. ]

Ditto, pp. 166—171. 1 Oe

Descriptions of Shells from the Gulf of California, and the Pa- cific Coasts of Mexico and California, Part Il. By A. A. Gould, M.D., and Philip P. Carpenter.

Ditto, pp. 198—208. Vi:

Monograph of the Shells collected by T. Nuttall, Esq., on the Californian Coast, in the years 1834-5, Ditto, pp. 209—229. W., First Steps towards a Monograph of the Recent Species of Petalo-. conchus, a genus of Vermetide. Ditto, pp. 313—317. (With wood-cuts.) xe First Steps towards a Monograph of the Cecide, a Family of the Rostriferous Gasteropoda.” [Chiefly from the American seas. ] Ditto, Part xxvi, 1858, pp. 413—444,

SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT

ON THE

PRESENT STATE OF OUR KNOWLEDGE

WITH REGARD TO THE MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA.

BY

PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B.A., Pu. D.

From the Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, for 1863, pp. 517—686. Published in August, 1864, Extra copies, with title-page, dated 1864.

Supplementary Report on the Present State of our Knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the West Coast of North America, By Puitre P. CARPENTER, B.A., Ph.D.*

THE object of the present Report is (1) to correct the errors which have been observed in the first Report (‘‘ Report &c.” 1856, pp. 159-368); and (2) to point out the fresh sources of information which have been rendered avail- able since that period. For convenience of comparison, the paragraph num- _ bers refer to those of the first Report in the corrections, and are continued

from them in the addenda. In the bibliographical portion, the criticisms by the writer of this Report are inserted in [ ]; a distinction not always attended to in the former volume, in consequence of which erroneous names and local- ities have been attributed to the reviewer, instead of to the authors quoted.

22. Introduction —(Line 4 from bottom.) The river Willamette flows northwards (Gld.). :

23. Early Writers ——The only Californian shell described by Linnzeus is Turbo sanguineus,=T. coccineus, Desh.; v. Hanl. Ips. Linn. Conch. p. 334. The types are too much worn to decide whether they came from the North Pacific or (as is more probable) from the Mediterranean. In Gmelin’s edition of Linneus, Zipsix, 1788-1790,—which is, in great measure, a translation from a German work published a few years in advance [teste Hanley],—the following species are assigned to the ‘“ West Coast of America,” probably on the authority of Martyn :——page 3529, Murex foliatus : 3702, Patella pecten : 3712, Patella calyptra. The last two seem exotic.

Many West-coast species had found their way into English collections during the last century, at a much earlier date than was expected at the time of the first Report. They were mainly derived from the voyages of Capt. Cook and other circumnavigators. Capt. Cook was accompanied by Solander, as naturalist, at the instance of Sir Joseph Banks. His shells passed into the hands of Mr. Humphrey, the dealer, at whose death the remainder, a thousand boxes, became the property of the elder Sowerby, and (in part) of Mawe [teste Hanley]. They took their chance of being figured or described by the early conchologists. The localities are (as might be expected) often interchanged, but have been quoted by later authors, who have not thought fit to avail themselves of more correct sources of information.

The first accurate delineations are by Thomas Martyn, in his Universal Conchologist,’ London, 1784. Those who only know this book from Chenu’s reprint, Paris, 1845, can form but a poor idea of the exquisite beauty of the original work. Of this, very few copies are accessible ; but it may be consulted at the British Museum, the Royal Society, and the Royal College of Surgeons. No. Plate. Fig.

16 5 3. Patella tramoserica, Mart. N.W.C. America, very rare. [N. Zealand. ] 18 6 1. Patella calyptra, Mart. N.W. Coast of America, very rare. [Not

identified: resembles Crep. adunca, without deck. Han], con- siders it a Hipponyz, like australis. |

31 8 4. Trochus incequalis, Mart. Friendly Isles, common. [Does not closely resemble the Japan and Vancouver species,=Pachypoma gibberosum, Chemn.

382 10 1. Trochus canaliculatus, Mart. N. Zealand, rare.

33. 10 2. Trochus annulatus, Mart. N. Zealand, very rare.

384 10 3. Trochus costatus, Mart. St. George’s Sound, rare. [=Calliostoma

Jilosum, castaneum, ligatum, and modestum. | * In consequence of the expected arrival of fresh materials, this report has been corrected and continued up to the period of going to press. Warrington Free Museum and Library, Aug. 1st, 1864. 3

518 REPORT—1863.

No. Plate. Fig. ; 43 13,14 rhs Buceinum liratum, Mart. St. George’s Sound, most rare. [= F. de-

cemcostatus (Say), Midd., = Middendorffii, Cooper. |

44. 13 2. Buccinum plicatum, Mart. (non Linn.] St. George’s Sound, common. [ =crispatum, + compositum, Chemn., =lactuca, &c., Esch. |

46 15 1. Buecinumlima, Mart. St. George’s Sound, rare. [Probably P. decem- costata, Midd. ; the variety with numerous ribs and flattened spire. }

47 15 2. Buccinum saturum, Mart. St. George’s Sound, most rare. [Like Chr, liratus, with keels evanescent. | :

62 20 2. Haliotis pulcherrima, Mart. St. George’s Sound, most rare. [Pacific Is.

66 24 1. Pusbre foliata, Mart. North-west Coast of N. America, rare.

76 26 4. Trochus pulligo, Mart. St. George’s Sound, common. :

80 28 2. Pectunculus corbis, Mart. Pulo-Condore, most rare. [= Cardium Nut-

tallii, Conr., teste Desh. Cum. The figure is not so accurate as most of the others; but the colouring is characteristic. |

153 53 1. Pecten rubidus, Mart. [non Hds.] Newfoundland, rare. [ =P. Islan= dicus, Mull. ]

Many of the figures of Martyn were reproduced by Chemnitz, in his com- prehensive continuation of Martini’s Conchylien Cabinet,’ 1780-1795. Un- happily, though often quoted for generic and specific names, he did not adopt the binomial nomenclature (except in vol. xi.), but described each shell in two or more words, as it happened. For this reason he appears to have had no scruple in altering previous designations, as follows :—

Fig.

1538, 1539. Murex Purpura alata, “Mart. Conch. Un. vol. ii. f. 66, Leaved Purpura foliata from N.W. coast of America.”

1634 .. Murex Glomus cereus, seu Cereus conglomeratus, Mart. vol. ii. f. 45, Ridged Buccinum hratum from King George’s Sound.”

Vign. 21, f. A, B. Buccinum compositum, Mart. Un. Conch. vol. ii. f. 44; Plaited Buccinum from King George’s Sound.”

Vign. 23, f. A, B. Trochus gibberosus Nove Zelandie. “Forster's Cat. no. 1374; La Raboteuse de la nouvelle Zélande.—Mart. Un. Conch. vol. i. f. 31; Rugged Trochus tnequalis from Friendly Is.”

1579, 1580. Trochus doliarius, Mart. vol. i. f.32, Fluted Zrochus canaliculatus from N. Zealand.”

1581, 1582. Trochus virgineus, Fayanne, Conch. pl. 79. f. 1. vol. ii. p. 342; id. Cat. Rais. no. 1352, p. 269; Le Sabot Magellanique.—Mart. Un. Conch. vol. i. f. 33; Ringed Trochus annulatus from N. Zealand.—Cab. Mus. Portl. no. 1240; the Purpled-edged Trochus; item, no. 1970, a large and fine specimen of the Purple-edged Zrochus from the N.W. coast of America; rare.” [= 7. celatus, var. 8. Gmel., teste Dillw. vol. ii.

. 800.

1802, 1803. Boicimad crispatum. ‘The furbelowed Whelk.” [=B. plicatun, Mart., non Ln.]

1841, 1842, Murex amplustre. N.W. coast of America. {This erroneous locality is copied from the Portland Cat.. The species is quoted from Byc- cinum (Latirus) aplustre, Mart., no. 3. pl. 1. f. 8, where it is rightly assigned to the Friendly Is. =M. argus, var. y. Gmel., teste Dillw. vol. ii. p. 735. |

The assignment of West American species to New Zealand, begun by Martyn, has continued a source of error to the present time. It occurs in Dr. Gould’s ‘Exploring Expedition Mollusca,’ in the Cumingian Collection, and in the British Museum.

In the ‘Travels in New Zealand,’ by Ernest Dieffenbach, M.D.. London, 1848, vol. i. pp. 228-264, is given a “Catalogue of the Species of Mollusca and their Shells, which have hitherto been recorded as found at New Zealand,” &e., byJ.E. Gray. The author premises that some of the species [marked *]

4

ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 519

assigned by the older writers may be found erroneously placed. The follow-

ing are probably from the West coast of North America, with the synonymy

as understood by Dr. Gray :—

Page. No.

229 8. Murex foliatus, Gmel. 3329. = M. purpura alata, Chemn.x. pl. 169. f. 1538- 9; Wood’s Cat. f. 13. Purpura foliata, Mart. U.C. ii. 66.— Hab. N. Zealand, Humnhreys. King George’s Sound, Martyn. [= M. tripterus, Kien.: non AL tripterus, Born et auct.=trialatus, Kien.” teste Hanl. |

229 9. Murex lyratus, G.nel. 3531.= M. glomus cereus, Chem. x. pl. 169. f. 1634. —Buecinum lyratum, Martyn, U. C. ii. f. 43.—Hab. N. Zealand, King George’s Bay, Martyn.

233 43. Purpura lamellosa,= Buccinum 1., Gmel., Wood’s Cat. f. 60.= Bue. pli- catum, Martyn, U. C. ii. f. 41. = Bue. compositum, Chemn. x. 179, vign. 21. f. A, B.= Bue. crispatum, Chemn. xi. 84, pl. 187. f. 1802-3. Murex er., Lam. 174.—Hab. N. Zealand, King George’s Sound, Chemn., Mar- tyn. Coast of Columbia.

237 = *71. Ziziphinus canaliculatus. Trochus c.. Martyn, U. C. pl. 32,= Tr. doliarius, Chemn. x. f. 1579-80; Wood’s Cat. f. 96.—Hab. N. Zealand, Martyn. California, Capt. Belcher, R.N.

*72, Ziziphinus annulatus. Trochus a., Martyn, U. C. pl. 38.= T. virgineus,

Chemn. x. f. 1581-2; Wood’s Cat. f. 98.= 77. celatus, 3., Gmel.— Hab, N. Zealand, Martyn. California, Capt. Belcher.

243 115. Bulla Quoyit, Gray, n. s.=B. striata, Q. & G., Voy. Astr. ii, 354, pl. 26, f. 8, 9, non Lam.—Hab. N. Zealand, Quoy, Stanger.

But the first authentic information on the molluscs of the North-western coast is given in the Voyage Round the World, but more particularly to the N.W. Coast of America,’ by Capt. George Dixon, London, 1789: to which is added a Natural History Appendix.

Page 355, fig. 2. Solen patulus*. Cook’s River. [=Machera Nuttall, Cony. ]

In the Conchology, or Natural History of Shells,’ by George Perry, Lon- don, 1811, a work of no little pretension, yet singularly inaccurate, are figured the following species, but without authorities for the assigned localities :—

* As this extract is probably the first description on record of molluscs from the Pacific shores of N. America, by the original collector, and as the book is rarely to be met with; it may be interesting to quote the passage :—

“At the mouth of Cook’s River [lat. 59°-61°] are many species of shell-fish, most of them, I presume, nondescript ; and of all which I should have endeavoured to have got specimens, had business permitted. Among the bivalves we noticed some of a large spe- cies, of the Cardium or cockle-genus [ Cardium corbis, Mart. ], half-a-dozen of which would have afforded a good supper for one person; but, for a repast of that kind, our men pre- ferred a large species of the Solen genus, which they got in quantity, and were easily dis- covered by their spouting up the water as the men walked over the sands where they in- habited: as I suppose it to be a new kind, I have given a figure of it in the annexed plate [ Solen patulus ; accurate external and internal views, size of life]. *Tis a thin brittle sheil, smooth within and without: one valve is furnished with two front and two lateral teeth [the ‘laterals’ are the nymphe for the ligament]; the other has one front and one side tooth, which slip in between the others in the opposite valve : from the teeth, in each vaive, proceeds a strong rib, which extends to above halfway across the shell, and gradually loses itself towards the edge, which is smooth and sharp. The colour of the outside is white, circularly, but faintly, zoned with violet, and is covered with a smooth yellowish-brown epidermis, which appears darkest where the zones are: the inside is white, slightly zoned, and tinted with violet and pink. The animal, as in all species of this genus, protrudes beyond the ends of the shell very much, and is exceeding good food.—A fine specimen of this kind is in the Collection of John Swainson, Esq., of the Custom House, London.—We saw also, on this coast, a kind of muscle, in colour and shape much like the common eat- able muscle of Europe, but differed in being circularly wrinkled, and a great deal larger [ Mytilus Californianus, Cony.}. One valve I saw at Queen Charlotte’s Islands measured above nine inches and a half in length.— With pieces of these muscles, sharpened to an ex- quisite edge and point, the Indians head their harpoons and other instruments for fishing Lhey fasten them on with a kind of resinous substance.’’— Dixon's ‘Voyage?

5

520 REPORT—1863.

PL Fig. oi Polyplex gracilis [ = Trophon multicostatus, Esch.]. N. Zealand. : 29 5, Melania striata. New California. {All the figures of + Melania’ on this plate represent large Budimi, perhaps from 8S. America. |

85 4. Cerithium reticulatum. New California.

44 2. Haustrum pictum [= Purpura planospira}. East Indies.

44 3. Haustrum dentex | = P. columellaris|. Nootka Sound: only 2 sp. known, 44 4, Haustrum tuberculatum | =P. patula, jun.]. ?—

41 3. Oliva Leveriana [ =O. porphyria]. ?—

47 2. Trochus decarinatus { = Calliostoma canaliculatum]. N. Zealand.

58 2. Venus radiata { = Callista lupinaria}. N. Zealand.

The common Californian Haliotis was, it seems, first described in the Zoological Miscellany,’ by Dr. W. E. Leach, vol. 1. 1814 *. Page 131, pl. 58. Haliotis Cracherodii, Leach. California.

Solander made use of the materials he had collected in Cook’s Voyage, in compiling a work on Conchology of considerable merit. Dillwyn made a copy of it, and used it in preparing his own, allowing priority to its specific names ; but it was never published. The types were lately parted-with by the Lin- nean Society, who had determined not to keep any collections except those of Jinneus. The Descriptive Catalogue of Recent Shells,’ &c., by L. W. Dill- wyn: London, 1817, is considered by Dr. Gray to be the best conchological work arranged according to the old system. ‘The following are quoted from the West Coast :—

Vol. Page.

i. 801. Mytilus frons, Linn.= Ostrea frons, Sol. Callone. Acapulco, Humphreys; West Indies, auct.

i. 469. Cyprea pustulata, Sol. Acapulco.

i. 617. Buceinum plumbeum, Chemn. California. [Monoceros, PS. America. ]

me

Following Dillwyn, and nearly eclipsing his fame through the originality and excellence of his classification, appeared Lamarck’s Animaux sans Ver- tébres,’ 1818-1822. Coordinate with or preceding this work are his Articles in the Annales du Muséam’ and the Encyclopédie.’ The fresh sources of his information are quoted in the first Report, p. 169.

In Delessert’s Recueil,’ 1841, are figured

Pl. 2, fig. 1. Solen ambiguus, Lam. | =S. rudis, C. B.Ad.] “Les mers d’Amérique.” Pl. 19, fig. 2. Cytherea semilamellosa, Gaudichaud | = C. lupinaria}, China Seas.

In Deshayes’ invaluable edition of the ‘An. s. Vert.,’ Paris, 1835-45, are quoted a variety of West Coast species which have already appeared under their original authorities. The following may be added :—

Vol. Page.

villi. 252. Bulimus Mexicanus, Lam.= Helix vittata, Fér. Mexico.

ix. 383. Haliots Californiensis, Swains.= H. glabra, Desh. California.

ix. 857. Pleurotoma tuberculifera, Br. & Sby. California.

ix, 584. Murex radix, Gmel.=M. melanomathos (pars), Dillw. Acapulco.

ix. 605. Murex foliatus, Gmel.=M. tripterus, Kien. “N.W. America. “? India.”

The last of the early writers whose works should here be quoted, and whose ideas on the relations of genera were considerably in adyance of the age, though somewhat fanciful, is Swainson, in his-‘ Zoological Illustrations,’ 1820-1833 ; Appendix to the Sale Catalogue of Mrs. Bligh’s Shells,’ 1822; and « Exotia Conchology,’ 1821-1835, reissued by Hanley, 1841. These works contain the following West Coast species :—

* This work has been translated into French, and republished, by Chenu; where the same spsr:ce 1s found on page 8, pl. 3. f. 2.

ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. bat

Bligh Cat. Page. 2. Haliotis rufescens, Swains. (Ditto in Exot. Conch. ed. ii. p. 34.) Galapagos [? | and California. 4. Cassis { Malea] ringens, Swains. ?— 5. Cassis corrugata, Swains. Native of the Galapagos. 5. Harpa crenata, Swains. ?— 8. Strombus granuatus, Swains. ?— Exot. Conch. Plate. 86. Conus princeps, Ln.= C. regius, Martini, Lam. (C. P. var. 8., Ln.=C. ebreus.) Asiatic Ocean. 97 (middle figure). Marginella prunum, Gmel., Martini= Voluta plumbea, Sol. MS. Africa. [The pinched W. Indian eo 182. Cyprea spadicea, Swains., Tilloch’s Phil. Mag. vol. lxi. p. 876. South Seas Mawe). 80. Hiltous Californiensis, Swains. [Figured with 9 small holes.] 1821. 55. Solen ambiguus, Lam. N. America, 1820. [This shell is conspecific with the “8. medius, Alashka,” of the B. M. Coll.; differing somewhat from the S. ambiguus as figured by Delessert. The B. M. locality is perhaps erroneous. ]

24. Valenciennes’ Memoir on Humb. and Bonpl., 1833.—The following notes are from a study of the complete copy in the Libr. Roy. Coll. Surgeons. Page.

231. Donax radiata { =var. of D. punctatostriatus, Hanl. 1843).

219. Venus succincta | = Chione Californicnsis, Brod. 1835}.

245. Bulimus undatus. {The Caribbean, not the Mexican, type is here figured. ]

267. Haliotis Californiana | =H. rufescens, Swains., not H. Californiensis, Swains. |.

267. (Add) Haliotis interrupta, Val. Tropical America. [The description accords with the young of H. Cracherodii, Leach. |

277. Cerithium musica. [Description accords with C. maculosum, Kien. ]

278. Cerithium granosum | = Cerithidea varicosa }.

279. Cerithium fragaria | = Rhinoclavis gemmata, Hs. }.

282. Cerithium varicosum | = Cerithidea varicosa, Sby. |.

808. Strombus cancellatus. Closely resembles Rostellaria fissurella, from Grignon. [Probably E. Indian. }

338. Conus scalaris [= C. gradatus (Mawe), Wood’s Suppl. }.

270. Solarium bicanaliculatum. Small species, like S. Herberti, Desh. Enc.

265. Natica Bonplandi. [The figure exactly represents Neverita patula, Sby.]

266. (Add) Natica uber, Val. Cumana.

317. Purpura semi-imbricata, Lam. {An. 8s. Vert. vol. x. p. 84, no. 39; not since identified from the brief description. Perhaps = Cuma costata, Blainv. |

287. Fusus turris [ =F. Dupetithouarsi, Kien. }.

290. Fusus Magellanicus = Buc. Geversranum, Pallas, = Murex Peruvianus, Ene. Méth.”

295. Ficula ficoides [? =decussata].

296. Pyrula spirata [? = Rapa, jun. }.

25. Coquille.—All the limpets quote! are South American. 26. Hschscholtz.—The following observations may be useful to the student:

Page.

10. Murex ferrugineus{ = Purp. crispata, Chemn., var. ; varices few, scarcely frilled ].

ll. Murex lactuca [= Purpura crispata, Chemn. |.

Jl. Murex multicostatus [1s not Trephon clathratus, as supposed by Midd. ; but pro- bably = 7. Gunneri. It resembles 7. laciniatum, Mart. (Falkland Is.) on a small scale; varices coronated, without spiral sculpture ].

16. Acmea. [Genus described in the Appendix to Kotzebue’s Second Voyage, 1830, p- 350; somewhat before Tectura, teste Woodward. |

18. Acmea mamillata. [The ‘crowded tubercles’ were perhaps due to nullipore. |

19. Acmea cassis [if a northern shell, is perhaps the strongly ribbed var. of pelta- but the figure accords best with the Cape Horn species, P. cnea, Mart. ]. i

20. Acmea digitalis {is perhaps distinct from the variable persona; but passes inta it by easy transitions J.

7

52 BEPORT—1863.

Page. ae fs Ql. Fissurella aspera [= Glyphis Lincoln’, Gray, =cratitia, Gld. But Gl. densicla- thrata, Rve, is probably distinct ; Sta Barbara, Jewett, Cooper |. 27. Tankerville Cat., 1825.—The following species are also from the West Coast. The prices are added from the British Museum copy, as a record of their former rarity :—

No. App. page Price. 70 10s. Solen ambiguus,

161 15s. Tellina operculata. 162 5s. Tellina punicea. ; f , 206 £10 10s. LucinaChildreni [described by Grayin Ann. Phil.1824; v. also

Zool. Journ. vol. i. 1825, pp. 221-2. There is no authority for the statement that it came from Brazil. The Br. Mus. specimens are from Mus. Cracherode,” and are probably West Coast. The only known locality is Cape St. Lucas. J

1293 30s. Trochus annulatus.

1294 20s. Trochus doliarius,

1690 10s. Murex crispatus.

1842 15s. Purpura patula.

1855 20s. Purpura planospira,

1896 45s. Harpa crenata.

2240 15s. Cyprea spadicea.

2251 2s. Cyprea albuginosa.

2330 xxxii 15s. Ohva splendidula. Hab. P— 2332 xxxiii Qs. 6d. Oliva biplicata. West Coast North America, 2333 XXXIV 2s. Oliva columellaris. ?— 2347 £5 5s. Conus regius.

The ,, in Rep., p. 174, should have been omitted, except at no. 808, p. vi. No. 1401 is described, on p. xii, as from Newfoundland, No. 1786 should have no page-reference.

In the Zoological Journal,’ London, 1824-1829, appear descriptions of the following species :—

Pagy Vol. i, March 1824, 60. Natica patula, Sby. Brought from 8S. America by M. de Humboldt. 2 specimens only known.” * 3 Oct. 1824, 369. Cyprea subrostrata, Gray. Nehoue (Mus. Sby.).

|‘ Probably fossil’ (Gray): a white, smooth spe- cies, not to be confounded with Trivia subrostrata. } ‘Jan. 1825, 510. Cyprea albuginosa, Mawe, pl.7. f.2; pl. 12. £2. Cali- fornia. Named, without description, in Mawe’s

Cat. (=C. poraria, var., Ducl.: Z. J. iv. p. 68.) 518. Cyprea pustulata, Sol. 8. Coast of Mexico. China. Vol. iii. Jan. 1827, 70. Hinnites giganteus (Sby.). ?—[ =H. Poulsoni, Cour. Calif. |= Hinnita gigantea, Gray, Ann.