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i I



New England Magazine

an SiUuieitvateD iHontl^lt






Volume VL




' . ' V

Entered according to Act of Q>ngress in the year z888.

By The New England Magazine Company,

In the office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington.

A// rights reserz'fd.




.-" ■!




Abbott, Samuel ; 276

Adams, Martha D 363

Ahlborn, Ida A 340

Albee, John. Sonnet 566

Allen, Hon. Stephen M 93

Ammidon, Philip K 394

Anne Bradstreet. Biographical and Critical Sketch 63

Ah Old New England Home. Sonnet 181

Armitage, Rev. Thomas, D.D., Portrait of 347

Art and Music (Cincinnati. V.) 459

Art Museum and Art Academy (Cincinnati. VI.) 466

Anthropology, The New 127

Bacon, Florence R 135

Ball, Hon. Nicholas, Portrait of 110

Bal'ou, Hon. Latimer \V., Portrait ot 151

Baptist Denomination, The. I., II. Illustrated 240, 341

Block Island. Historical and Descriptive Sketch. Illustrated . . . . ' 107

Boarder, The Other. Story 493

Bolton, Charles K 126

Boston to the Penobscot 375

Breaking the Spell. A Psychological Story 255

Brewster, A. C 221,606

BriggH, George Nixon, Portrait of 243

Brine, C. Lm .' . 264

Brown, Arthur \V 107

Brown, Moses, Pioneer Cotton-Manufacturer of America. Illustrated . 34

Buchanan, Professor Joseph Rodes, M.D 127

fiunyan, John, Portrait of 241

Business Life in Early New England 498

Campbell, Rev. William Wilfred . 181

Canadian Fisheries 329

Captain's " Hamt," The. Southern Sketch 502

Carey, William, D.D., Portrait of 242

Carr, Laura Garland 75

Cass, Emma M 55

Challenge, The. Verse 265

Chamberlin, Major W. II 474

Chandler, Bessie . . T 254

Choate, Isaac Bassett 17, 321, 382, 583

Cincinnati. II. Historical and Descriptive. Illustrated 423

Cincinnati. A Literary Symposium 421

Close to the Chimney 323

Clubs and Club Life (Cincinnati. IX.) 479





Colby University. Illustrated 309

Colby University, President and Professors of. Frontispiece 308

Cole, Pamela McArthur 63

Conservatism in Terms of Measurement 17

Corse, John Murray, Portrait of. Frontispiece 106

Corse, John Murray, Biographical Sketch 172

Cotton-Manufacturer of America, The Pioneer. Illustrated 34

Cross, Allen Eastman 575

Curious Chapter of Vermont History 16S

Cushman, Rev. Henry Irving, D.D 150

Cushman, Rev. Henry Irving, D.D., Portrait of 152

Czardom, On the Borders of 541

Daniell, W. H 7

David. A Story 363

Dean Academy. Illustrated 150

Dean, Dr. Oliver, Portrait of 149

Decorative Art. Illustrated (Cincinnati. VII.) ... 1 468

Denominations, Religious

IV. Baptist Denomination. I., II 240, 341

Editor's Table. (General Index, VIII.) 82, 182, 290, 396, 524, 61&

Edmund Clarence Stedman. Sonnet 567

Education Illustrated (Cincinnati. IV.) 455

Electric Railways, Development of 551

E. K. B 27

Enslaved and A Fugitive 76-

Expositions, History of Cincinnati. VIII 474

Fellner, Eugene 576

Fisheries, Canadian 329>

Florida for the Winter. Descriptive Sketch. Illustrated 209

Force, Hon. M. F ^ . . . 421

Foxhill, Jonathan 323

French, Dr. J. M 168

Friends' School, Providence. Illustrated 43

Ghost, The Ancestral. Story 49.

Gifford, Rev. O. P., Portrait of 349

Gordon, Dr. A. J., D.D., Portrait of 354

Goshorn, Hon. A. T 466

Grandpa West's Story 177

Greve, Charles Theodore 479

Guild, E. P. 375

Guild, Reuben A 71

Hale, William, M.D 566

Halstead, Murat, Portrait of. Frontispiece 420-

Harris, William Andrew, Biographical Sketch 71

Harris, William Andrew, Portrait of '. 73

Harvey, Mrs. Anna M., Portrait of 530

Haynes, Rev. E. J., Portrait of 379

Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, Portrait of. Frontispiece 340

Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, Critical and Biographical Sketch 594

Hill, George Canning 209.



Historical Record 88, 188, 396, 403, 528, 624

Holt, Charles L 551

Hooper, Hon. Henry 459

Hovey, Rev. Alvah, D.D., Portrait of 245

How the Cares Went, Verse 75

Hurd, Charles E 172

In Court. Verse 606

Index to Current Historical Literature 102, 198, 504, 412, 536, 629

Ipswich Bridge. Verse 321

Isms 56, 127

VI. Spiritualism 56

VII. The New Anthropology 127

John Albee. Sonnet 566

Jones, Augustine, LL.B 34

Judson, Rev. Adoniram, D.D., Portrait of 346

Kimball, H. P 374

Labor Problem, The. Webster Historical Society 93

Lady of Went worth Hall, The. Dramatic Poem 576

Larks, The. Verse , 340

Lawrence from Andover Hill. Sonnet 375

Leaven, A Little.

Chap. I. Concerning God 277

Chap. II. Adam. The Garden of Eden. Eve 384

Chap. III. First Day or Age of Man's Creation 508

Chap. IV. Cain, Abel, Seth 607

Chap. V. The Noachian Age and the Second Day of Creation 612

Lilacs, The. Verse 16

Literature and Art 95, 196, 303, 409, $34, 628

Lochman, M. i^ 507

Lorimer, Rev. George C, LL.D., and his Work , , , , * 382

Love and Life. Verse 254

Ludlum, J. K 493

Lyford, The Late Professor Moses, LL.D , Portrait of 317

Harden, Dr. O. S., Portrait of in

Martha's Vineyard Summer Institute. Illustrated 3

McKenzie, Rev. W. S., D.D 377

Meader, W. S 43

Measurement, Conservatism in Terms of 17

Milton, John, Portrait of 240

Mitchell, Hon. B. B., Portrait of 116

Moses Brown, the Pioneer Cotton Manufacturer of America. Illustrated 34

Moses Brown, Portrait of. Frontispiece 2

Moxom, Rev. Philip S., Portrait of 355

Munkacsy's Christ. Sonnet 374

My Pilgrimage. Story 600

Natural Moods. Verse 507

Neale, Rev. R. H., D.D., Portrait of 244

Necrology 89, 191, 300, 407, 531, 626

Nelson, W.S 541


Victory Inspectors, Duty of 524

Family Reunions 6f8

Fire, The Destruction by i8a

Forestry in Schools 83

French Influence on the Anglo-Saxon 596

French Muddle, The 82

Germany and France 596

Gladstone on the Situation 182

Oray, The Late Professor Asa 290

Holmes, Dr., The Venerable 82

Hot'Headedness in I>ealing with International Difficulties 524

Humor, The Current Abuse of 290

Intimate Business and Social Relations between Florida and New England 618

Italy and the Pope 82

June 82

Lansdowne in Contempt 82

Long Session of Congress 524

Matthew Arnold's Place in Literature 524

Mental Healers, The Convention of 82

Mineral Wealth of our Country . . . . ' 524

Mohammedan Doctrine ^96

New England's Sympathy for Florida 618

New Fisheries Treaty 396

Parochial Schools 396

Pension Commissioner Black's Report 618

Pope, The, and Rev, Dr. McGlynn 82

Proctor, Professor Richard Anthony 618

Retiring from Business 82

Re-union of "Old Forty-Niners" 618

Sheridan, Philip H 524

Sounding the Aerial Ocean 182

Spooner, Lysander 82

Surrender of Refugees to Russia under a New Treaty 290

Tidal Wave in Mid-Ocean, A 182

Tunnelling the Common 82

Weeds 82

What People say of our Cincinnati Number 618

Willey Disaster 396

Winter Emigrants from New England 290

Woman in India 396

Yeast of New England Ideas 290


rom 5Cr1 Plate EngnTing by Pollock in lSj6.


New England Magazine

9in %llttm&tti> fsiontl^lv




or THE


Volume VL




had no precedent, so the whole matter of organization and equip- ment was largely experimental. The experiment, however, has been so successful as to have many imitators. Ten years ago the general impression among teachers and parents was that no study or mental labor should be attempted in the midsummer holidays the livelong day should be spent in utter listlessness and sleep." Such was the orthodox creed; but a few heretics held to a dif- ferent opinion. They believed "change was rest"; they main- tained that a reasonable and moderate amount of study could be combined with recreation to ad\-antage, both physical and mental- if the surrounding conditions were favorable. If this could be


demonstrated, then the cause of education would be greatly ad- \-anced ; for at this season and onlyat this season oouM the teach- ers in active employment find the time to thoni^ehes uivier the guidance and inspiration of specialists, to l-^ lilted out of ihe



ruts, and fitted for bet- ter work in their profes- sion. Whether students would come, was a ques- tion that could only be answered by giving them an opportunity.

To make the experi- mental test a fair one, the conditions must be favorable ; some spot known to be cool, quiet and health-giving must be chosen. Such a spot was found at Cottage City, on the island of Martha's Vineyard, al ready favorably known as a summer watering- place, where the breezes, from whatever quarter they blow, are cooled and purified by the surrounding ocean, where is no malaria, natural or social.

These thoughts had gradually matured in the mind of a promi- nent teacher who had a beautiful cottage on the Highlands, over- looking Vineyard Sound, the great marine highway between New York and Boston, where he spent his summer vacations. To Colonel Homer B. Sprague— at that time Head Master of the Girls' High School in Boston belongs, therefore, the honor of the conception of this comprehensive plan for a vacation school. He discussed it with friends for a time, and found enough who were willing to join him in giving the matter a trial. The plan of organization adopted was a mutual one each Head of a De- partment contributing his share of the expense and receiving the tuition fees paid by his own pupils ; this plan is still pursued in the school.

As a matter of history it may be well to give the names of those who joined Colonel Sprague in the first session. The fol- lowing is the list:

Homer B. Sprague, in charge of the Departments of English Literature and Elocution ; John Tetlow, of Latin and Greek ;


Marie Mehlbach, German ; Benjamin W. Putnam, Drawing; Tru- man J. Ellinwood, Phonography; J. C. Greenough, Didactics; L. S. Burbank, Geology and Mineralogy ; William R. Dudley, Bot- any; A. C. Apgar, Zoology; Benjamin P. Mann, Entomology; Philippe de Senancour, French,

The records state, that a permanent organization being deemed desirable. Colonel Homer B. Sprague was chosen President, and Benjamin W. Putnam, Secretary. A limited number of circulars, explaining the object of the Institute, were sent out. About seventy-five students responded to this first call, in 1878.

Thus the Martha's Vineyard Summer In- stitute began its career. It had no funds, no building, and none of the usual school appli- ances. So little was known about it, even on the island, that some who, having seen the circular and having come to attend, failed after diligent search and in- quiry to find it, and left the island in disgust. The more persevering or fortunate found the pro- fessors at last ; and work was begun wherever a place to screen them from sun and shower could be found in cottage parlors and on piazzas, over offices and in tents a humble beginning, but the best that could be made under the circumstances.

The unity of purpose was promoted by frequent gatherings of the Faculty at the cottage of the President, where matters of in- terest and importance were freely discussed. Public lectures were given in halls and churches, which served to interest the people of Cottage City. Students and faculty were, on the whole, so well satisfied with the result of the first session that it was decided to try it again the following year.


The next season some slight changes in the organization were made and new members added to the faculty. Among the latter, particularly to be noticed, is the name of Lewis B. Mon- roe, Professor of Elo- cution. He did not, however, live to meet with his class. Pro- fessor Wm. B. Dwight, of Vassar College, now tiic Vice-President of the Institute, took charge of the Depart- ment of Zoology, in connection with Pro-

, . ~, W. M. OANIELL, T

fessor Apgar, Ihc ses- sion was more successful than the first, and it \ on with the work in 1880, also.

This year the faculty was strengthened by the addition of Pro- fessor William J. Rolfc, who took charge of English Literature ; Professor R. R, Raymond, who took the Department of Elocu- tion; Dr. John Lord, as head of the Department of History; and Carl Petcrsilea, as head of the Musical Department.

In 1881 some very important additions were made to the Faculty of Instruc- tion. Alexander Win- chell, LL.D., took Department in Geol- ogy; Rev. John D. King, the Departmenl of Microscopy ; Pro- fessor William H Daniell, that of Vocal Music ; and Edward S. Burgess, the Department of Botany.

s decided to go



With the exception of the first named, these gentlemen have con- tinued to hold their positions to the present time.

The records of the Institute show that, from the first 3"ear, there hiid been a feeling that a building for its especial use was needeii. Several propositions bearing upon the subject were CL>asidercd, but nothing was accomplished. At the close of the ses- sion of 'Si, the Faculty felt that if something was not done before another year the whole thing must be abandoned, or the


Institute removed to some other locality. At this juncture the Rev. Dr. Morrison, President of the Camp Meeting Association, who had become deeply interested in the work of the Institute, suggested to Professor Putnam, who was trying to solve the prob- lem, that a subscription paper presented to the cottagers and sum- mer visitors, would undoubtedly meet with a hearty response. Professor Putnam at once threw himself into the work, and as the result of his earnest efforts the Institute was saved, and a sum was subscribed sufficient to justify the erection of a build- ing for its accommodation. Four years had shown the peo- ple of Cottage City that the Institute was a benefit to the place. They had enjoyed the lectures of such men as Sprague, Lord, Rolfe and Winchell ; they had seen coming into the town, each year, a class of earnest and cultivated people, bent on improving their minds to a still higher degree, people who are a blessing to any community ; and they were not willing to let them leave the island.

With the pledge of this sum of money, and the indications of a continued location on the island, a more permanent form of or- ganization was deemed important. Accordingly, in September, the following gentlemen, viz. : Homer B. Sprague, T. J. Ellin- wood, Benjamin W. Putnam, William B. Dwight, Hermann B. Boisen, John D. King, William V. Morrison, Alexander Winchell, William J. Rolfe, William H. Daniell, and R. R. Raymond, organ- ized themselves into a corporation under the provisions of the general statute relating to religious, educational, and charitable institutions. They adopted by-laws, and proceeded to elect offi- cers, with the following result: President, Homer B. Sprague; Vice-President, William J. Rolfe ; Clerk, Benjamin W. Putnam ; Treasurer, Truman J. Ellinwood.

The clerk of the corporation was elected as the Business Agent, and instructed to attend to the erection of a building commodious enough for the present and prospective wants of the various classes of the Institute, on a lot of land which had been given for this pur- pose (under certain restrictions) by the Vineyard Grove Company.

A building, containing sixteen class-rooms and an assembly hall, was completed for use before the session of 1882. A view of the building appears with this article. It was named Agassiz Hall, in honor of the eminent naturalist and great teacher, who founded the first Summer School of Science in the country, loca-


ting it on another island of the same group. This school having been given up soon after his death, the Martha's Vineyard Sum- mer Institute became its natural successor.

On the 13th of February, 1882, Colonel Sprague tendered his resignation as President, impelled thereto by "ill health and a press of other duties." As he made this positive, the Directors were compelled to accept it. Professor William J. Rolfe, the Vice-President, was unanimously elected to fill the vacancy. Of him the retiring President said to the Directors : " You are for- tunate, indeed, to secure the services of one who has achieved success in both science and literature ; one whose fame, through his works, is not only national but international." He has held the office to the present time.

The erection of a spacious and convenient building on a cool and commanding site, gave a new impetus to the good work, which was apparent in the increased attendance at the opening of the session of 1882. The building was dedicated with appropriate services, the former President, Colonel Sprague, delivering the dedicatory address. The following hymn, written for the occa- sion by a lady' who has always been deeply interested in the suc- cess of the Institute, was sung with spirit by the large audience in attendance.

[July 20, 1882],

Father, on Thee we wait, To Thee we consecrate

The house we raise ; Bless Thou each heart and hand That nobly gave and planned, Where we now grateful stand

To give Thee praise.

Thou said'st, ** Let there be light,' And Nature's temple bright

Uprose to view : Let now Thy light descend On stranger and on friend, And all our spirits blend

In friendship true.

I Mrs. B. W. Putnam.


We dedicate our Hall, And u'rlte upon its irall

The ** Teacher's" name; May dews from heaven baptize, And Ocean's paean rise, While through the sounding skies

Rings hit fair fame.

Help each, like him, to be The child of nature, free,

Seeking for light ; Let science prove all true, And art bring out to view The hidden beauties, new,

Bv labor's might.

Great God, look down and bless ; On all our hearts impress

The truth sublime : That wisdom comes from Thee, Life, love, and liberty; Thine, Thine the glory be,

Throughout all time.

The comfort of the new building, with the various appliances of a school-house, was fully appreciated by those who, for four years, had struggled on without them. One large room is made extensively useful as a reception room, where students can meet for social intercourse, to read and write ; where, also, are displayed on shelves the various new text books of the year, sent by the publishers for examination; and where all other necessary school supplies are kept for sale.

In 1882 the Directors decided to publish a paper, which was issued under the name of the "Institute Herald." This paper, under the energetic management of Dr. William F. Morrison, of Providence, son of the Treasurer, was a success, and aided in making the Institute better known, not only in the immediate vicinity, but throughout the country.

During this session, the Department of History was most ably conducted by Dr. Charles K. Adams, now President of Cornell University. Dr. W. A. Brownell, of Syracuse, took charge of the Department of Mineralogy, and has continued to fill that chair most acceptably to the present date. The German Department was in charge of Professor Hermann B. Boisen, author of some


valuable text books, a most inspiring teacher, full of enthu- siasm, which he imparted to his pupils in a remarkable degree, but whose good work was soon terminated by his early and sud- den death, while teaching at the Lawrenceville Academy, in New Jersey. The Shakespearian readings of Professor R. R. Ray- mond had become very popular, and large audiences gathered to enjoy his renderings of the plays of the great poet. The course of Geological lectures, by Dr. Alexander Winchell, was enjoyed by throngs of delighted listeners.

The season of 1883 was one of continued prosperity for the Institute. The erection of two buildings for the accommodation of the Musical Department, marked the outward growth, and relieved the already crowded rooms of the main building by fur- nishing accommodations for the large class in Vocal Music, under Professor Daniell, and that in the Piano Forte, under Professor Howard.

The Department of Didactics was, during the sessions of 1882 and 1883, in charge of Colonel F. W. Parker, at that time one of the supervisors of the Boston schools. His fame drew a large class, that met in Union Chapel, on the Oak Bluffs side of the town, as there was not sufficient accommodation in the build- ing. In the year 1883 a fair in aid of the Institute, was held in Agassiz Hall, under the charge of the wives of the professors, and a considerable sum of money was raised to meet obligations that had been incurred in the furnishing of the building. Another fair was held in Union Chapel the following year, but a severe storm and other causes combined to make it much less successful than the first.

In 1884, the Rev. Dr. Morrison, who had acted as Treasurer since the incorporation, felt compelled to resign the office ; and the Institute was fortunate in securing as his successor, Professor William H. Daniell, who had so ably conducted the Department of Vocal Music, and who, as one of the Directors, had proved himself a staunch friend and wise counsellor. He received a unanimous election, and the Institute still enjoys the benefit of his services in this important position.

This year the Department of Pedagogy was in charge of Pro- fessor H. H. Straight, of the Cook County Normal School, Chicago, Illinois ; who, by his genial and courteous manner, his enthusiasm and original methods, endeared himself to all who


met him. We are pained to learn that he has recently passed on, pained for those whom he has left behind, not for himself ; for he was ready to be with the Great Teacher.

This year the Department of Philosophy was in charge of F. Louis Soldan, Principal of the St. Louis Normal School, with Dr. William T. Harris, of Concord, as lecturer. The Department of Physical Culture was conducted by Dr. Dio Lewis, of New York, who, by his inspiring ways, pleasant manners, and original devices, awakened much enthusiasm in his specialty. The next year, sick- ness in his family, and then his untimely death by an accident, deprived the Institute of the further services of one who, with all his idiosyncracies, was a benefactor to the age in which he lived.

It has always been the aim of the Directors, other things being equal, to select the heads of the departments from as widely separate points as possible. As the students come from all sections, it is wise to have the professors from all parts of the country. This year they were fortunate in obtaining, to fill the chair of history, Dr. Henry E. Shepherd, president of the College of Charleston, S. C. For two seasons he has filled that position, commending himself to all by his genial manner and pro- found knowledge. The most noticeable improvement, in what may be termed the plant of the Institute this year, was the erec- tion of a building for a caf6, where the students who are obliged to lodge at some distance can take their meals with convenience. This plan is found to be both economical, affording board at a lower rate, and advantageous also in a social way, bringing the students more together, and promoting good feeling and a fraternal spirit.

The ninth year (1886) saw but few changes in the Faculty, the most noticable being that in the chair of elocution, which was filled by Dr. S. S. Curry, Dean of the Boston School of Expres- sion, who endeared himself to those under his immediate charge to a remarkable degree.

We may add in a general way, that each year, profiting by the experience of the past, the Directors have been able so to system- atize matters that work can be begun the first day of the session and continue uninterruptedly till the close, which, by a recent vote, may not be till the sixth week. It is proper also to state that, as this is a school established primarily for teachers, the mem- bers of the Faculty take especial pains to teach methods^ not only by precept, but by example, in imparting a knowledge of their


own subject. Pedagogy, the science of teaching, has always been a prominent department. They hold that if they fill a pupil full of his subject he will gain the ability in which he can ^^j/ teach it. It is a pleasure to teach a subject we know, and know we know. It is misery to try to teach a subject we do not know and know we do not know.

Docs this study during vacation tend to injure the health and to unfit for the labors of the following school year } After careful observation we arc prepared to say that it does not, when pursued moderately during three or four hours of the day. Experience has taught us that not more than two Departments can be profitably taken by any one student during a session. These, with the lectures, bathing and excursions for health and pleasure, fill up the time as fully as is desirable. The professors are enthusiastic specialists who have devoted a lifetime to acquire a knowledge of their subjects, and they almost unconsciously give out of their stores so freely that if several branches are taken only confusion to the learner follows if he is but a beginner. But what a gain to teachers if they can return to their work feeling that on two subjects, at least, they are ready to meet their pupils, and are prepared to give them the latest and best information on those ! We have reached these conclusions after observing the results of this vacation work on students coming from every state and terri- tory in the union, as well as representatives from Canada, Mexico, South America, the Hawaiian Islands, and even England.

This brief sketch of the leading points in the history of the Institute will enable the reader to form some estimate of its value as an educational force. He will sec that it has come into exist- ence and grown in response to a demand of the times. Without endowment, without State aid, it has steadily developed. The contributions to its support have been only in small sums, and at long intervals. It depends for its perpetuity upon the life of no one individual, as it has been built up by a body of earnest men, who, at no small sacrifice of time and money, have labored for this educational philanthrophy for such, surely, it may justly be termed.

The fact that it has reached its tenth consecutive session, in spite of the many obstacles in its way, and has enrolled about fif- teen hundred students, and that it has had the services of nearly one hundred instructors many of them eminent in their special


line of work carries this school beyond the experimental period, and places it squarely among the institutions of learning that have become a part of our advancing civilization.

It is not yet fully equipped. At present the students are obliged to lodge at some distance from the class-rooms. This is both inconvenient and expensive. Dormitories are needed ; they were contemplated in the original plan, and ground was reserved for their location, but the necessary funds are still wanting.

We hope and believe the day is not far distant when the heart of some person of abundant means will be moved to complete the equipment of the school by supplying this deficiency. some Cornell or Peabody, who would thus link his name with an edu- cational institution whose beneficial influence has already been felt in every State of the Union ; an institution that knows, in dispensing its benefits, no distinction of creed, race, or color.



By Susan Hartley Swett.

With homesick heart and weary feet I wandered through a dim old street

In a land remote and far, Just as day from the twilight gales Was softly folding her rosy sails,

To anchor beneath a star.

An unknown speech perplexed my ear, A strange bird sang a night-song drear;

A wind-mill white, in distant haze. Looked like something within a dream ; The moonrise, with its pallid gleam,

Like pictures seen in childhood's days.

Even the window lights aglow

Ruddy and warm through blossom snow.

Nothing of welcome seemed to say ; Nor the children's voices gay and sweet. That sang out through the quiet street,

From a gable over the way.

Spring was there under waving trees ;

She kissed my cheek with her light breeze ;

But not the spring I knew, alas. Whose breath with cherry blooms was sweet. Who scattered daisies at my feet.

Within the green New England grass ;

Then suddenly the air grew charmed, My eyes were wet, mv heart was warmed.

My footsteps quickened with delight, A lilac scent. O breath of home I The brave old flowers like purple foam

Waved welcome o'er a paling white.

Familiar as the village green,

The homestead lane, the foreign scene

By their sweet magic had become. ** What though the world be vast and wide. All, all are kin," low voices cried,

** And everywhere you find sweet home."




Some twenty-eight years before the beginning of our era, there was set up in the Roman Forum the golden milestone. The act was done by command of the Emperor Augustus. This stone marked the middle point of the city. It was called the milestone because, as it is reported, the Emperor designed that all the roads leading from the thirty-seven gates of the city should have the dis- tances upon them measured, and their milestones numbered from this central one, the Milliariutn Avemtm. The practice previous to that had been to reckon distance either from the old wall of the city or from the gate in the outer wall. The innovation proposed was for the convenience of the general public, and it could injure no one. It would seem there was need only that money enough be appro- priated from the public funds to meet the trifling expense of the work. If no voice was raised against this expenditure, what possi- ble objection could be made }

But Augustus did not live long enough to see this undertaking carried through. Indeed, it was never accomplished. The Em- peror carried other measures that seem to us far more difficult than this plan of re-numbering the milestones along the public ways. He carried them with a pretty high hand at times, and that, too, in the remotest parts of the globe. But here was a little home affair, a pet scheme of his own, concerning only the city and its environs, involving no principle of administration to^ antagonize popular sentiment, apparently beyond his personal and his official authority. The obstacles in the Emperor's way were such as lay outside the scope of legislation, and were insuperable to executive power.

The case is an interesting and instructive one, for history abounds in instances of just such futile attempts at reform. If we can realize what were the hindrances to the Roman Emperor's sensible and benevolent design, we shall understand better about what rate of progress to look for when any reform is started. A study of the particular case may keep us from losing patience with a slow old world which never seems to know what is really


best for it. Individually the world gets impatient with its collect- tive self a thousand times because of this stupid slowness.

For us to understand how this matter of the new milestones stood at Rome, we must try to get a foothold in that neighborhood, with neighborly interests, and with antipathies in common with the people who lived along those ways, and who travel over them to the city upon visits of pleasure and business. For the time being we must become tenants by sufferance of a surburban estate. Our friend, Paulinus Julius, who lives directly across the road from our modest holding, and who has received his ager privatics (paternal acres) through a long line of ancestors, will politely come over to the bench under our vine some bright afternoon, ut salutetn dicat (to wish us good morning ;) and he will forthwith ask us how we like the idea of living two or three miles farther from the town than we have been living heretofore. The ques- tion is put not with any intention of drawing out our own senti- ments, but simply to pave the way to our neighbor's unburdening himself. Without waiting for an answer to be given, he goes on to say that, for his part, he is thoroughly disgusted with the whole thing. Why, there is that little property of his over there, which has always been described in the itineraries as seven miles from Rome, who is going to recognize it when the milestone down the road there is marked nomint (ninth) instead of as now, septim- um (seventh).^ In fact, himself and all his ancestors will lose their identity if they are to be thrust out into the Campagna two miles or more beyond their well-known location. Arc such things to be }

Before Paulinus has time to go on to answer this question to his own satisfaction, and to our relief, another query is propounded. Bucolicus comes along from some hill-farm out in Apulia, driving some half-a-dozen goats from his master's flock to market. The goats are growing tired. Their driver reached the full limits of growth in that direction years ago. "How far to Rome.^" he asks. '' Millia passuHvt septan'' (seven miles), says Paulinus, "and if you don*t hurry along, the Emperor will have made them novem (nine)." ''Quid aisf' (Do tell ! how's that }) And Bucoli- cus rests his crook against the trellis in token of that rest which he proposes to take himself. "Why," says the other, "that mile- stone down there by the roadside, videsne (d'ye see )} which has been known as the milliarinm septimum for all time within the


recollection of our fathers, is to be moved down the road passus sescentos (half-a-mile) at least, and then have two added to its number. That's Augustus's idea."

The herdsman has not time to take in so vast a subject, and to utter language which may be noted as disloyal and sediti(fus be- fore Quintiliiis, of the ancient family of Quintius, comes up from the viais Quintianus to see about an amphora of wine which was stored upon the premises before we came into possession. The little hamlet to which this personage belongs, and from which his family takes its name, has grown up in the course of centuries around the millianim quintiini (fifth milestone), and all the great- ness of both place and family is associated with the spot. ** Me- hcrciile (Egad)," says he, *' here is Virgil singing * Tendimus Latimti (We are on our way to Italy), but it looks as though 'in this matter we were likely to sing, 'Ab Roma distrahimur' (We are being dragged away from Rome). Qnidpossumus (What can we do )} There are the tombs of our ancestors, and their names are all inscribed upon the memorial tablets the honored name of Quintus. Shall these inscriptions be erased, and the tablets all be recut with the names of certain Septimii ? But no Septimius has ever had his name written in the records of the Senate as having deserved well of his country, and shall these sacred records be falsified } Immo vero (Why, bless my soul, more than all that) ! what will become of the name and good-will of our diversorinin (hostelry), which is worth plus niimmorum inilibiis octo per anmim (more than three hundred dollars a year).^" asked the worthy caupo (landlord). This last remark convinces us that Augustus's idea will never prevail so far out as to the fifth milestone from the city.

This world of human kind, vain of its past and confident of the future, may well echo the Song of the Brook,

*' For men may come and men may go, But I go on for ever."

It is all very true that the world does go on while we mortals falter and lag by the way. The thing to be noted here is that with all the boasted advance of the present, the world is getting on, where it is making any progress at all, very much as it was trying to get on in the time of Augustus. Frequent illustrations of this may be found in the history of most proposed economic reforms.